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EMC Design
for Electric Vehicle Powertrain Modules
electric car plugged in to charger
Applying ISO 26262 to Power Management in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Location of Safety Warnings: On the Product or in the Manual?

Applying ISO 26262 to Power Management in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Location of Safety Warnings: On the Product or in the Manual?

February 2021
February 2021
Volume 13 l Number 2
State-of-the-Art EMC Designs to Consider Before Your Next Module Project
By Dr. Min Zhang
This article presents the EMC design techniques for electric vehicle powertrain modules. High voltage EMC regulations for powertrain modules are reviewed first to help understand associated design challenges. The design techniques are then demonstrated in detail to help engineers design a module that will pass the EMC requirements in the test chamber.
By Christopher Semanson
Are you a new safety manager shopping power converters and wondering about the features listed under the functional safety section? Or are you a seasoned design and release engineer looking to start on a new ISO 26262 module? Either way, this article offers guidance in applying functional safety concepts to your next automotive design.
On the Product or in the Manual?
By Kenneth Ross
This article discusses the legal and practical issues around the duty to warn and instruct and where to place safety information on the product and/or in the manual.
futuristic graphics
cars on the freeway
safety warning on electrical product
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EMC Concepts Explained
Bogdan Adamczyk

On Your Mark
Erin Earley

Hot Topics in ESD
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compliance news
Material Found to
Block Electromagnetic Waves
Researchers at Drexel University’s Nanomaterials Institute have demonstrated that a class of thin, two-dimensional material has the potential to block electromagnetic radiation (EM), potentially laying the groundwork for a new generation of shielding materials…
EU Pushes for “Right to Repair”
for Products
As part of the widespread effort to boost environmental sustainability efforts in the European Union (EU), the EU Parliament has passed a resolution calling on the EU Commission to grant consumers a “right to repair” a variety of products, including electrical and electronic devices…
DILBERT Comic strip
DILBERT © 2021 Scott Adams. Used By permission of ANDREWS MCMEEL SYNDICATION. All rights reserved.
Feature Article
EMC Design Techniques for Electric Vehicle Powertrain Modules
State-of-the-Art EMC Designs to Consider Before Your Next Module Project
By Dr. Min Zhang
futuristic graphics

hen helping clients in the electric vehicle (EV) industry with their module design, I often find that engineers tend to follow an out-of-date list of “do’s” and “don’ts” in the form of EMC design rules without understanding the basics. These kinds of design rules are often borrowed from other industries, and they are not up to date with the latest technology involved in the fast-paced EV industry.

In this article, using a powertrain module as an example, I will first introduce the high voltage EMC regulations with which a powertrain module needs to comply. I will then highlight the risks and challenges when designing such modules. The main part of this article will share design techniques that engineers can apply on various parts of a powertrain module, including ground, front-end filter, inverter design, and so on. Examples are given to demonstrate some of the key design techniques.

It should be noted that the introduced design techniques in this article share the same principles as any other EMC engineering. Therefore, engineers from other industries can also benefit from these techniques.

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rf/microwave instrumentation
Other ar divisions: modular rf sunar rf motion ar europe
Copyright © 2020 AR. The orange stripe on AR products is Reg. U.S. Pat. & TM. Off.
Feature Article
Applying ISO 26262 to Power Management in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
Understanding the Tools and Methods Used to Develop Functionally Safe Power Systems for ADAS Applications
By Christopher Semanson

ver the last decade, automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) like Ford, GM, and Tesla have been at the forefront of mobility and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), jockeying for a leadership position in this hotly contested, quickly developing field. As these systems advance, with them comes an increase in the number of semiconductor components in the vehicle to support devices like cameras, radars, and modules used to make decisions based on their information.

This has provided an opportunity for semiconductor manufacturers to increase their market share, allowing them to pivot from their traditional base microcontroller (MCU) offerings to highly integrated system on chip (SoC) processors, memory, and power devices. However, as the industry evolves, the question remains for both consumers and OEMs alike: ”How can we standardize the development and design of these components across the industry, such that we can satisfy the risk that comes along with these components, while confidently claiming the part functionally safe?”

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Fast Track to the Future of EMC Compliance
The future is here! With the increasingly sophisticated technology in our homes and industry — as evident in modern personal electronics, mobile devices, medical equipment, and automobiles — the potential for electromagnetic interference has accelerated significantly. Today’s cars are essentially computers on wheels with varying degrees of automated control and “infotainment” capabilities. Testing of these emerging technologies to ensure safety and reliability has never been more important — or challenging. ETS-Lindgren’s ability to provide turnkey systems, create real-world test scenarios, troubleshoot potential failures, and maximize the chance of passing standards within the allotted time and budget helps our customers bring life-changing products to market — faster. With decades of experience in compliance testing and measurement, ETS-Lindgren boldly addresses the future of EMC performance — Beyond Measure.

To view our accreditations and case studies, visit our website at

Feature Article

Location of Safety Warnings

On the Product or in the Manual?
By Kenneth Ross
Electrical component with safety warnings on it

n important issue to be considered in trying to meet the duty to warn and instruct is for the manufacturer to decide where to place safety warnings – on the product, in the manual, or on the product and in the manual. Generally speaking, all warning labels on the product should be shown in the manual. But the converse is not true. Not all warnings in the manual need to be placed on the product.

Since our first goal is to communicate the warning to the user, we need to figure out where best to place them to maximize the possibility of that happening. In the event of an accident, the plaintiff will always claim that they did not see the warning and, therefore, the manufacturer may need to present evidence as to why they placed it where they did.

This article will discuss the basic duty to warn and instruct, and then examine the law and standards as they pertain to this issue. Then it will discuss recommendations about how to decide where to place this information and what to say.

Basic Legal Duty to Warn and Instruct
Product sellers must provide “reasonable warnings and instructions” about their product’s risks. The law differentiates between warnings and instructions as follows: “Warnings alert users and consumers to the existence and nature of product risks so that they can prevent harm either by appropriate conduct during use or consumption or by choosing not to use or consume.” Instructions “inform persons how to use and consume products safely.”1
EMC concepts explained
EMC Resonance
Part I: Non-Ideal Passive Components
By Bogdan Adamczyk

his article is part of a two-article series devoted to the concept of resonance in EMC. In Part I the fundamental circuit background is presented and illustrated by the resonance phenomenon in the non-ideal models of passive circuit components: capacitors, ferrite beads, resistors, and inductors. Part II (to appear in the next issue) describes the resonance in the decoupling capacitor circuits.

Resonance in RLC Circuits
In circuit courses, the study of resonance is usually limited to the two classical 2nd-order circuits, series and parallel RLC configurations. These circuits, shown in Figure 1, contain a single lumped capacitor and a single lumped inductor connected either “purely” in series or “purely” in parallel.

Actual circuits differ from these classical configurations; in addition to the intentional discrete reactive components, they contain distributed parasitic inductances and capacitances. Nevertheless, the study of these basic RLC configurations provides an insight into the more complex topologies and their behavior. Let’s begin with a series RLC circuit.

hot topics in ESD
ESD Issues for Flat Panel Displays
By Joshua Yoo for EOS/ESD Association, Inc.
Introduction to Flat Panel Displays and the Current State of the Art
Electronic displays have been widely adopted around the world, and information displays have become an essential part of human life. Flat Panel Displays (FPD) products like smartphones, tablets, televisions, and wearable displays use LCD and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technologies for most current display devices. As innovation comes from many sources, it is difficult to predict or accurately forecast future display technology development. Curved and flexible displays were introduced as the most innovative display technology achievement along with OLEDs in the last ten years. Flexible displays are a different segment from traditional FPDs, using plastic base material instead of glass, or extremely thin glass, which can change shape without breaking. As in these results, we are recently seeing newly introduced foldable smartphones from several manufacturers and widely adopted by users.

The obvious changing trends in display technology are products getting thinner and lighter and flexible display devices. There is a common trend for higher resolution and pixels per inch (PPI) and increasing screen sizes for new display devices. Also, there are continuous developments for brighter, lower reflectance displays for better visibility under high ambient light conditions. Future display trends will continue to be introduced at industry trade shows including Internationale Funkausstellung (IFA) and International Consumer Electronics Show (CES). Some of the newer technologies and finished products are Quantum Dots, curved and flexible displays with higher resolution and higher pixels per inch, Low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) and Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) technology, OLED, and transparent display technologies.

on your mark

Product Safety and the Pandemic

By Erin Earley
Considerations for Your Warnings and Instructions in the COVID-19 Landscape

he pandemic has brought many changes in the way we do business. For equipment manufacturers, that may equate to big picture shifts related to your supply chain, vendors, and production. At the time of writing, COVID-19 continues to surge; even once the virus is better contained, though, its impact in areas like those will likely have a lingering effect for some time to come. Here, let’s explore key considerations to keep in mind for your product safety strategy, warnings, and instructions.

Our COVID-19 World and Product Manufacturing
Safety and risk reduction is a key component of pandemic business continuity plans.

“Over the past months, a common trend we’ve seen with product manufacturers is the need to reevaluate their supply chains to ensure they’re well-positioned to continue business despite hurdles with the current environment – everything from vendor shutdowns to issues with fulfilling orders,” says Angela Lambert, who consults with product safety teams on a regular basis through her role heading standards compliance at Clarion Safety Systems.

banana skins
Banana Skins numbered 316-317 describe interference events that we might not be too surprised to hear about in or after 2015.
2015: Vacuum cleaner interferes with space station navigation

A number of people who had been enjoying weightless activities in the non-spinning central hub of Virgin Space Ltd’s newest hotel “Arthur C Clarke III” found themselves trapped on the ‘ceiling’ for 15 minutes, unable to reach the doors…

2015: Intelligent cruise control interferes with latest silicon chips

The 30nm silicon fabrication process is now well-established and helping create many products and provide services that even ten years ago would have been considered science fiction. But investigations by York University into claims…

New battery pack significantly reduces RF immunity of life vest, causes malfunctions

An example of a subtle change in hardware configuration to the original design concept can be found in a life vest. The life vest was fielded with a bridgewire EID that could be fired by a salt-water activated battery pack that had been hardened…

Most ESD test generators do not simulate real-life ESD events

Even though all the (ESD test) generators have peak current values and risetimes very similar to the ones specified in the standard, some of the generators fail the equipment under test (EUT) at vastly different voltage levels from…

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REMC – Head Office

5185 Dolman Ridge Road
Ottawa, ON



3446 Winder HWY, Suite M334
Flowery Branch, GA

1-800-EMC-1495 x342

Siepel – Head Office

Impasse de la Manille, 56470
La Trinité-sur-Mer, France

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