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Protection of High Voltage Power
Substation Control Electronics from
Protection of High Voltage Power Substation Control Electronics from
Lightning and RF Electrical Bonding

SCIF and Radio Frequency Secured Facility Design

Avoiding Supply Chain Disruptions of Safety-Critical Recognized Components

Lightning and RF Electrical Bonding

SCIF and Radio Frequency Secured Facility Design

Avoiding Supply Chain Disruptions of Safety-Critical Recognized Components

June 2021
June 2021
Volume 13 l Number 6
An Approach Using EMC Standards
By Dr. William A. Radasky
This article discusses techniques for assessing the effectiveness of existing shielding and penetration protection in power substations against early-time, high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (E1 HEMP) and intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI).
By Ken Javor
Everything you need to know about the lightning and radio frequency bonding requirements in military and aerospace standards (and nothing you don’t!)
By Joel Kellogg
Secure facility designs often comingle ICS/ICD-705 and NSA 94-106 design requirements, creating project confusion with significant design and cost implications. This article focuses on bringing some clarity to the differences between ICS/ICD-705 design guidance and NSA 94-106 performance requirements. The related secure facility design and construction process is also reviewed.
By Jim Bender
End-product manufacturers can help protect against supply chain disruptions that impact the availability of listed or recognized components by proactively identifying suppliers who can provide substitute components that conform with their listing requirements.
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compliance news
FCC Makes Spectrum Available for Commercial Space Launches
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules to provide access to spectrum that can be used by commercial space launch vehicles during pre-launch testing and space launch operations.

Frequencies used to support communications during space launches have historically been allocated for exclusive use by federal agencies. Now, under the terms of a Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking issued in late April, the FCC has added a non-federal, secondary allocation in the 2200-2290 MHz band that can be used by private space travel and satellite launch companies for communications purposes…

Congress Seeks to Designate National Amateur Radio Operators Day
The U.S. Congress is reportedly taking steps to officially recognize the important contributions made by amateur radio operators.

According to an article on the website of the ARRL, Congresswoman Debbie Lesko (AZ) has introduced a bipartisan resolution to designate April 18, 2022 as National Amateur Radio Operators Day. April 18th is the anniversary of the founding of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) which was established in 1925…

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DILBERT © 2021 Scott Adams. Used By permission of ANDREWS MCMEEL SYNDICATION. All rights reserved.
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Feature Article
Protection of High Voltage Power Substation Control Electronics from HEMP and IEMI
An Approach Using EMC Standards
By Dr. William A. Radasky
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his article describes an approach for hardening high-voltage power substation control electronics from high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) that would occur if a nuclear weapon were detonated in space. While we hope that this type of electromagnetic event never occurs, it is a possibility, and the impact on unprotected electronics and the power grids that they control could be severe. In the case of HEMP, a single high-altitude nuclear burst could expose thousands of power substations to high-frequency transients within one power cycle, creating essentially a simultaneous distributed event for which the power grid was not designed.

While the emphasis for this article will be on the protection from early-time (E1) HEMP, it will also discuss the additional efforts that can be made to protect the electronics from intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) produced by electromagnetic weapons. By considering both the E1 HEMP and IEMI together, we cover the main high frequency transient high-power EM (HPEM) threats that have become important in recent years.

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Feature Article
Lightning and RF Electrical Bonding
The Origin and Application of the 2.5 mΩ Requirement
By Ken Javor
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Comic strip


he report on which this article is based was put together for internal government use some time ago. But the continued relevance of the information contained in that report recently became apparent when a discussion group on LinkedIn variously labeled the subject matter requirement (2.5 milliohm bond) mysterious, obsolete, “black magic,” and ultimately, unnecessary. Apparently, the LinkedIn contributors had little or no idea of the historical context of the requirement and evoked, for this author, the quintessential “Dilbert” moment shown here.

The author was also reminded of a famous observation by Arthur C. Clarke, which is paraphrased as follows:

“Any sufficiently obscure technology is indistinguishable from black magic.”

To help provide some context for their discussion and in an effort to curb the all-too-frequent instinct to “move fast and break things,” the author posted this report to the LinkedIn group, along with the following advice, which applies regardless of your field of endeavor, engineering or otherwise.

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From enabling aircraft missions for World War II planes to ensuring reliable testing of today’s complex electronic systems, ETS-Lindgren is proud to meet the needs of the U.S. government and military – Beyond Measure.

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Feature Article
SCIF and Radio Frequency Secured Facility Design
An RF Shielding Design Guide to Navigating ICS/ICD 705 and NSA 94-106 Requirements
By Joel Kellogg

n recent years, we’ve noticed a growing confusion in the industry over sensitive compartmented information facilities (SCIF) design and performance requirements. Part 1 of this article is intended to bring some clarity to various documents and performance requirements from a radiofrequency (RF) shielding perspective to aid in the design and construction of these facilities.

Introduction to SCIF Specifications

The two most referenced documents for SCIF design are ICD/ICS‑705 Technical Specification for Construction and Management of Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities.[1] and NSA 94‑106 [2]. It has been our experience that these documents are often referenced interchangeably or in conjunction with each other.

In some cases, project documents will indicate that a facility has been designed to meet NSA 94‑106 as identified in ICD/ICS‑705. This is problematic as ICD/ICS‑705 does not reference NSA 94‑106, nor is ICD/ICS‑705 intended to meet the requirements set forth in NSA 94‑106. This article will analyze the purpose of ICD/ICS‑705 and NSA 94‑106 as it pertains to RF shielding and highlight some of the differences between the two standards.

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TOP Reasons to Attend
CLAYTON R. PAUL GLOBAL UNIVERSITY – The Clayton R. Paul Global University will host 10 interactive lectures and 20 hours of in-depth EMC classes.

WORKSHOPS & TUTORIALS – A program of nearly 40 workshops and tutorials covering EMC, Signal Integrity, and Power Integrity.

250+ TECHNICAL PAPERS – A program of over 250 peer-reviewed technical papers.

CONTENT AVAILABLE ON-DEMAND – Content will be available on-demand through 30 September 2021.

OPPORTUNITIES TO JOIN TECHNICAL COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES – Join our technical meetings – 14 Technical and Special Committees and an extensive program of Standards Working and Continuity Groups

SCHEDULE ACCOMMODATES YOUR BUSY WORK OBLIGATIONS – The extended schedule helps our virtual attendees manage their work, home, and symposium schedules while also providing the opportunity to attend more sessions and technical meetings than would be possible at an in-person conference.

VIRTUAL EXHIBIT HALL – The technical exhibition is an integral ingredient in our symposium and gives exhibitors the opportunity to interact with attendees. We are looking to our sponsors to provide the materials and education we all gain so much from when visiting their booths.

REDUCED REGISTRATION FEES – To reflect the challenges presented by COVID-19, registration fees for technical program access will be heavily discounted. Free “guest” passes will be available for those interested only in attending technical meetings (e.g. Technical Committees, Standards, Working Groups) and accessing sponsor materials. A group discount is available for ten registrations from one organization.

Feature Article
Avoiding Supply Chain Disruptions of Safety-Critical Recognized Components
How a Proactive Approach Can Help Manage the Unexpected
By Jim Bender

hen the COVID-19 pandemic struck in 2020, challenges arose in nearly every industry. Staffing levels were tested. Manufacturing output changed with little to no predictability. Demand for some products soared while others plummeted. One area severely impacted by COVID-19: global supply chains. Yet this was not the first, and certainly won’t be the last, major event to shake supply chains, where disruptions can occur for any number of reasons: natural disasters, transportation complications, cybersecurity breaches, and, of course, a pandemic.

Supply chain interruptions can lead to any number of complications. They can disrupt production and impact costs, pricing, and revenue. The potential to damage a brand’s reputation and customer/consumer relationships is also great. Yet, disruptions can happen at any time and with little or no warning. Manufacturers and product developers need to be prepared to effectively manage interruptions and their potential impact.

For most manufacturers, a preventive approach to help avoid supply chain disruptions is paramount and can be done by establishing multi-sourced suppliers to meet immediate, time- and budgetary-sensitive needs. A critical, often overlooked consideration is the identification and supply of components (including subassemblies) used in listed or certified electrical end-products. Understanding how components fit into the final product helps promote proactive supplier engagements. Knowing their application limits can also support efforts to proactively offset supply chain disruptions. And if the need to alter products arises, this knowledge will help manufacturers to make timely changes and address most certification concerns.

EMC concepts explained
Evaluation of EMC Emissions and Ground Techniques on 1- and 2-layer PCBs with Power Converters
Part 2: DC/DC Converter Design with EMC Considerations
By Bogdan Adamczyk, Scott Mee, and Nick Koeller

his is the second in a series of articles devoted to the design, test, and EMC emissions evaluation of 1- and 2-layer PCBs that contain AC/DC and/or DC/DC converters and employ different ground techniques [1]. In this article, we first present a top-level schematic of an overall system and then focus on a systematic approach to a DC/DC converter design. Several EMC considerations are addressed at the schematic level, and recommended design improvements are provided to reduce the risk of failures during testing.

1. Introduction
Most hardware designs begin with a baseline schematic based on the Integrated Circuit (IC) supplier’s guidelines and application notes. These application notes show examples of how to implement the devices along with guidance on how to design and eventually translate the design into a Printed Circuit Board. The level of EMC consideration provided in the vendor design resources and datasheets of each component varies significantly and may not be comprehensive enough to ensure EMC compliance in all industries where the devices could be used. The staff at E3 Compliance will typically perform an EMC design review on designs in the early stages of development. The purpose of the design review is to identify EMC concerns or risks against the requirements and recommend design improvements to prevent EMC failures during testing. This is an important step to a successful product development process that helps streamline the pre-compliance testing where final EMC issues are detected and resolved before EMC Compliance testing.
hot topics in ESD
The Relationship Between EMI/EMC and ESD

he 2020 EOS/ESD Symposium in September 2020 featured a new EMC Special Session, held on the Wednesday of the Symposium, organized in cooperation between the EMC Society and EOS/ESD Association, and featuring EMC Society leaders as well as presentations/presenters from the recently held 2020 EMC Symposium.

This Special Session was planned to emphasize relationship between EMI/EMC and ESD (how EMI and ESD can be used together, what aspects of EMI can be considered in EMC solutions, and how the different EMI-related tests relate to ESD. This session featured a set of papers, short tutorials, and an interactive expert panel discussion, providing a platform to encourage participation with the intent to continue this in the future.

These papers covered topics from investigation for improvements for the IEC 61000-4-2 standard, triboelectrification effects on spacecraft, robotic scanning to study ESD induced soft failures, and soft failures generated from system transient testing. There were also five invited tutorials covering both the IEC test methods and evaluations and EMI measurements.

BMW screen heater interferes with car radio

Q: The rear-screen heater in my BMW 3-Series causes so much interference when switched on that it’s impossible to listen to the car radio. Our local BMW dealer suggested replacing the entire rear screen as at cost of more than £600. This seems drastic. — KR from Hertfordshire.

A: This is a known problem within the trade. It stems from the fact that the rear screen includes both the heating elements and the radio aerial. The high level of electrical current required…

EMI suspected of causing cancellation of shuttle launch

Just in case anyone in the EMC community was away from the media for the last few days, electromagnetic interference is one of the suspected culprits in a fuel sensor malfunction that resulted in the cancellation of the first planned space shuttle launch earlier this month. Four hydrogen fuel sensors read either wet or dry, and a dry reading from all four sensors triggers engine cutoff and an aborted launch. After the originally scheduled flight was called off on July 13, literally hundreds of engineers tried to recreate the electromagnetic environment in which one sensor failed intermittently…

Close proximity of cell phone corrupts data in keyfob, immobilising vehicle

I’ve always been suspicious of admonitions to turn off mobile phones on planes, in hospitals and so on, believing them to be yet more examples of the culture of bossiness that pervades modern life. It turns out that the bossy-boots are right.

You know how it is – one minute the car is working perfectly; the next – literally – it has conked. So it was last weekend when I was trying to transport four extremely heavy lead planters, overlooked by the removers…

Modern EM environment creates problems for audio induction loops – examples

Being involved in providing audio induction loops for hearing aid users, I am interested in cases of audio magnetic interference. The modern electromagnetic environment has an increasing number of these.

While installing loop systems in a building in Wolverhampton Science Park I checked for possible interference. A coil of red-coated pyrotenax cable in the ceiling was interesting. That being part of the Fire Alarm installation, I used the monitor receiver to listen to the “Break-Glass” alarm point…

Upcoming Events
June 6-11
International Microwave Symposium (IMS)

June 15-18
Applying Practical EMI Design & Troubleshooting Techniques

June 26
IEC International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR)

June 28-30
Sensors Expo and Conference

July 20-23
2021 ESD Workshop

July 27-August 13
2021 Joint IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Signal & Power Integrity, and EMC Europe (EMC+SIPI 2021)

July 28
The Battery Show – Digital Express

August 16-18
DesignCon 2021

August 16-19
Military Standard 810 (MIL-STD 810) Testing Open Course

August 23-26
Military Standard 810 (MIL-STD 810) Testing Open Course

Due to COVID-19 concerns, events may be postponed. Please check the event website for current information.
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Thanks for reading our June 2021 issue!