In Compliance: The Compliance Information Resource for Electrical Engineers logo
Seventy Years of
Electromagnetic Interference Control
in Planes, Trains, and Automobiles (and Ships and Spaceships, as well)
ESD Designers’ Headache with Multiple Automotive Test Requirements, Part I

The Future of Wi-Fi

CPSC Gets Aggressive About Failure to Report

ESD Designers’ Headache with Multiple Automotive Test Requirements, Part I

The Future of Wi-Fi

CPSC Gets Aggressive About Failure to Report

May 2023
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EMC Concepts Explained
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Troubleshooting EMI Like a Pro
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Hot Topics in ESD
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May 2023
Volume 15 l Number 5
By Ken Javor
The first in a multi-part series of articles exploring the background of modern electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements and test methods covers general topics.
By Gianluca Boselli
The trend of progressively migrating both ESD and EMC immunity from the system/board to the component level is creating unprecedented challenges for the component ESD designer. Implications of EMC-ESD immunity co-design will be reviewed along with several case studies.
By IEEE Standards Association (IEEE SA)
The revolution and advancement of Wi-Fi technology are led by efforts of the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE SA) and based on the IEEE 802.11™ series of wireless connectivity standards, which continues to dramatically impact how we communicate and access information.
By Kenneth Ross
Since early 2021, the failure to report or late reporting to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has resulted in significant civil penalty settlements. Manufacturers need to understand their legal responsibilities when analyzing post-sale incidents, injuries, and lawsuits so that they can argue that they met their statutory reporting responsibilities.
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hand about to press a hologram wi-fi button
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compliance news
FCC Updates References to Equipment Authorization Standards
As part of its ongoing effort to ensure that its regulations align with technical issues covered in new and updated standards, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has updated its rules to incorporate four new standards under its equipment authorization program.

In a Report and Order, the Commission has listed four new standards that can be used by FCC-recognized accredited laboratories to evaluate equipment for conformity with FCC requirements.

The FCC’s Report and Order also includes a number of changes to currently referenced standards, mostly addressing obsolete references. The complete list of the additions and changes is in Appendix A of the Report and Order.

FDA Posts Updated FAQs on Medical Device Cybersecurity
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has released an updated list of frequently asked questions (FAQs) on the agency’s requirements regarding…
EU Commission Updates MDR/IVDR Transitional Provisions
The Commission of the European Union (EU) has modified the transitional provisions of its regulations under the EU’s Medical Device Regulation…
Feature Article
Seventy Years of Electromagnetic Interference Control
in Planes, Trains, and Automobiles (and Ships and Spaceships, as well)
Understanding Today’s EMI Limits and Test Methods Begins With Knowing How We Got Here
By Ken Javor
digital rendering of monorail
Explanatory Note1
This is the first in a multi-part series of articles exploring the background of modern electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements and test methods. In this first part, we’ll cover general topics. Part 2 will address the line impedance stabilization network (LISN) and test methods based on it. Subsequent parts will be devoted to radiated emission control and will address the important topic of “(Re)Discovering the Lost Science of Near Field Measurements.”


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Feature Article
ESD Designers’ Headache with Multiple Automotive Test Requirements, Part I
A Review of ESD-EMC Co-Design Challenges
By Gianluca Boselli
a man in the background analyzes a holographic x-ray of a car with the battery highlighted

he trend toward society’s “smart‑electrification” is driving the need for ESD immunity at the system-level. IEC 61000‑4‑2 [1] defines how to perform the electrostatic discharge immunity test at the system level. Until about 15 years ago, protecting against such events involved implementing ad-hoc ESD protections (TVS – transient voltage suppressors) at board/system-level in proximity to the connectors interfacing with the “external world.”

However, a new trend of implementing system-level robustness at the component level (i.e., on-chip) is quickly becoming standard practice, mainly stemming from the desire to reduce system/board design costs.

Feature Article
The Future of Wi-Fi
How Wi-Fi 7 Will Make Innovative New Applications Possible
By IEEE Standards Association (IEEE SA)
Person's finger reaching out to futuristic sci-fi looking floating circular UI with large wifi button in the middle

i‑Fi technology is based on the IEEE 802.11TM series of wireless connectivity standards that have revolutionized how we communicate and access information. Today, billions of Wi‑Fi-enabled devices are in use worldwide, dramatically impacting how individuals, businesses, government agencies, and societies interact. It is no exaggeration to say that the IEEE 802.11 series of standards has significantly supported the deployment of high-quality global communications Wi‑Fi technologies through inexpensive, equitable internet access.

Since its debut 25 years ago, Wi‑Fi has played a vital role in helping us be connected at home, work, and in public places. You may recall a time when Wi‑Fi wasn’t so readily available, but today we expect a standard level of connectivity wherever we go – even in large outdoor spaces such as parks and baseball stadiums. Typical of technology, the earliest versions of Wi‑Fi were considered slow by today’s standards and its use was more limited. Today, we now use an enormous number of Wi‑Fi-enabled devices – computers, smartphones, game consoles, health/fitness devices, and much more – for productivity, organization, entertainment, health, and even security.

Feature Article
CPSC Gets Aggressive about Failure to Report
Civil Penalties Significantly Increase
By Kenneth Ross
judge's gavel sitting on top of a stack of $100 dollar bills

he most important responsibility of any manufacturer or product seller under the Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) is to report product safety issues to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) that meet the statutory requirements under the Act.

In the last few years, the compliance staff of the CPSC has reached settlements with a number of companies over allegations that they failed to either report relevant product safety issues or failed to report them in a timely manner. These settlements included significant civil penalties. Before I describe some of the specific allegations in these matters, I want to describe the reporting requirements.

EMC concepts explained
Smith Chart and Input Impedance to Transmission Line
Part 2: Resistance and Reactance Circles
By Bogdan Adamczyk

his is the second of the three articles devoted to the topic of a Smith Chart. The previous article, [1], introduced the concept of normalized load impedance and concluded with two equations describing the resistance and reactance circles. This article explains the creation of the resistance and reactance circles which are the basis of the graphical operations on the Smith Chart, like the one shown in Figure 1 [2].

The next two sections discuss the resistance and reactance circles and are based on the material presented in [3].

hot topics in ESD
Updated Trends in Charge Device Model (CDM)
By Robert Ashton for EOS/ESD Association, Inc.

harged device events are by far the leading cause of electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage in modern electronics manufacturing facilities. If an integrated circuit contacts a conducting surface at a different potential, there is a discharge of current. Due to very low inductance and low resistance the discharge is very fast, often less than a nano second, but the currents can be up to several amps. Integrated circuits are required to have a certain level of robustness against charged device events to make them manufacturable. Charged device event robustness is measured using the charged device model (CDM) described in ANSI/JEDEC/ESDA JS-002-2022 [1]. In February 2021 Charvaka Duvvury and Alan Righter published an article in In Compliance Magazine outlining trends in CDM target levels and CDM testing [2]. Since that time, the Industry Council on ESD Target Levels released Version 3 of their white paper “A Case for Lowering Component-level CDM ESD Specifications and Requirements” (WP2 Version 3) [3]. This article provides an update on the trends discussed in the Duvvury and Righter article with insight from WP2 Version 3.

troubleshooting EMI like a pro

Four Useful Tips for Using Affordable Benchtop Spectrum Analyzers

By Dr. Min Zhang

ver the past few years, several equipment manufacturers have launched affordable benchtop spectrum analyzers that are useful for several aspects of EMI troubleshooting and pre-compliance work. These units are often priced between $1000 and $3000 (USD), depending on the frequency range and model types. In addition, some models include a few paid add-on options, such as a tracking generator, EMI filter, reflection loss bridge, etc. Among these options, the tracking generator and EMI filter are worth having if you do pre-compliance EMI work.

Wyatt has many blog articles on this subject including [1], and his “EMC Troubleshooting Trilogy” presents guidelines for selecting a spectrum analyzer. Another useful resource is Mayerhofer’s “How to correctly use spectrum analyzers for EMC pre-compliance tests” [3]. Engineers can check out these articles (including the manufacturers’ application notes) to familiarize themselves with a spectrum analyzer’s basic and advanced functions.

Upcoming Events
May 1-3
2023 IEEE International Symposium on Product Compliance Engineering

May 16-19
Applying Practical EMI Design & Troubleshooting Techniques

Advanced Printed Circuit Board Design for EMC + SI

Mechanical Design for EMC

May 16-17
EMC and Compliance International Exhibition and Training

May 22-25
2023 Joint Asia-Pacific Symposium on EMC (APEMC) and International Conference on EMI & C (INCEMIC)

May 22-25
2023 International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)

May 23
Annual Chicago IEEE EMC MiniSymposium

May 25
EMC Fest 2023

June 11-16
IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS)

June 20-22
Sensors Expo & Conference

July 10-13
Military Standard 810 (MIL-STD-810) Test Training

July 23-28
IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propogation & USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting

July 31-August 4

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