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Electronic Warfare and
Cyber Defense
of Satellites
Energy-Related Products and Resource Efficiency Requirements

Electric Shock Stimulation for Complex Leakage Current Waveforms

Creating an Effective and Defensible Product Recall

laser beam destroying a satellite in space
Energy-Related Products and Resource Efficiency Requirements

Electric Shock Stimulation for Complex Leakage Current Waveforms

Creating an Effective and Defensible Product Recall

February 2024
This is How You Reduce
Testing Time by More Than 50%
With regulatory adoption of multiple signal radiated immunity test methods (IEC-61000-4-3:2020, 4th edition), AR’s Multi-Tone System enables you to vastly reduce your test times in accordance with automotive, commercial, and aviation EMC RI standards. Included is AR’s proprietary emcware® software, offering users numerous test and calibration routines utilizing multiple signal methodology, to meet these standards.

For example, AR’s Multi-Tone System can reduce the typical time to run traditional tests such as IEC 61000-4-3, ISO 11451, and ISO 11452, by over 50%. In the event of an EUT failure, margin investigation and traditional single tone testing is easily performed through AR’s emcware® software.

Multiple full sweeps are often required during mitigation efforts, which is where the multiple signal approach will pay dividends.

This is a creative way to help your company be more profitable by using your assets more efficiently.

Visit us at or call 215-723-8181.
Talk to an applications engineer at 800.933.8181.
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columns contributors
EMC Concepts Explained
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On Your Mark
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Hot Topics in ESD
EOS/ESD Association, Inc
Troubleshooting EMI Like a Pro
Min Zhang
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February 2024
Volume 16 l Number 2
By Jeff Viel
With the increasing sophistication of electronic warfare and cyberattacks, it is critical to develop and implement effective cyber defense strategies to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of satellite systems. This article will explore the various test methods and techniques that will be used to protect satellites from electronic warfare and cyberattacks.
By Alex Martin
This article reflects on the recent drafting of a European circular product standard, the publication of EN4555X material efficiency standards, and some specific international and national standards. This standardization activity is spearheading thinking on resource efficiency, and the requirements of these standards could soon find their way into future EU ecodesign laws.
By Hai Jiang and Paul Brazis
Leakage or touch current tests for electrical shock protection is mandated by safety standards in the process of issuing a safety certification for various electrical products. In this article, electrical shock sensation experiments were conducted for a complex waveform composed of a combination of 60 Hz and a higher frequency sinusoidal signal.
By Kenneth Ross
Recalls can create huge problems for manufacturers and product sellers. They can generate new product liability lawsuits that are harder to defend, involve a significant financial cost to implement, and create reputational problems with consumers and retailers. Manufacturers must carefully design a recall or other corrective action that is as effective as possible and adequate under the circumstances. Various government entities are issuing new requirements that can help with these efforts.
computer screen with a model of a satellite
hardwood gavel in front of a flag
hand surrounded by electricity
two wooden blocks labeled PRODUCT and RECALL
compliance news
FCC Proposes That All Mobile Phones Be Hearing-Aid Compatibles
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has taken another step forward to ensure access to vital communications technology and services for those with hearing impairments or hearing loss.

In a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), the FCC has proposed that 100% of all wireless handsets, including mobile phones and smartphones, be fully hearing-aid compatible (HAC) by mid-2027. Under the NPRM, handset manufacturers would have a 24-month transition period to achieve this goal. Nationwide service providers would have 30 months to reach 100% HAC, while non-nationwide service providers would have 42 months…

FCC Proposes $1.2 Million Fine for Marketing of Noncompliant Radio Devices
In another example of its stepped-up enforcement efforts, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has cited a New York City-based technology retailer for marketing unapproved radio frequency (RF) devices.

According to a Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture issued by the Commission, Sound Around, an online seller of audio and video electronics and accessories, marketed 33 unauthorized, non-compliant radio frequency devices through its website. The company also reportedly failed to comply with repeated requests from the FCC’s Enforcement Bureau to cease its marketing of the non-compliant devices…

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Feature Article
Electronic Warfare and Cyber Defense of Satellites
Strategies and Test Methods for Protecting Satellites From Cyberattacks
By Jeff Viel
woman wearing glasses on dual monitor computer set up with satellites on screens

n today’s world, satellites play a critical role in providing communication, navigation, and surveillance services to the defense and aerospace industries. However, with the increasing sophistication of electronic warfare and cyberattacks, these satellites have become vulnerable to a wide range of threats. Therefore, to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of satellite systems, it is essential to develop and implement effective electronic warfare and cyber defense strategies.

This article explores the various test methods and techniques used to protect satellites from electronic warfare and cyberattacks. We will discuss the types of threats that satellites face and the challenges associated with testing for electronic warfare and cyber defense. We will also provide case studies of successful testing and protection of satellites against such attacks. Finally, we will explore future developments and research directions in this field.

Feature Article
Energy-Related Products and Resource Efficiency Requirements
A Look at Key Standards That Could Influence Future EU Legislative Proposals
By Alex Martin
hardwood gavel in front of a flag

mong the 44 recitals in the EU’s Ecodesign Framework Directive [1] is an assertion that the consideration of the environmental impact of an energy-related product [2] throughout its whole life cycle “has a high potential to facilitate improved environmental performance in a cost-effective way, including in terms of resource and material efficiency.”

However, the Framework Directive does not define what it means by “resource and material efficiency,” nor is this discussed in the European Commission’s Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on the Ecodesign Directive and its Implementing Regulations. [3]

Nevertheless, resource efficiency requirements are now getting written into EU ecodesign implementing measures. [4] For instance, the 2019 Refrigerating Appliance Ecodesign Regulation [5] specifies several resource efficiency requirements. Among these requirements are provisions for refrigerating appliance manufacturers, their authorized representatives, or importers to ensure the availability of spare parts as well as to offer access to repair and maintenance information.

Feature Article
Electric Shock Stimulation for Complex Leakage Current Waveforms
by Hai Jiang and Paul Brazis
Outstretched arm surrounded by electrical currents
Editor’s Note: The paper on which this article is based was originally presented at the 2023 IEEE International Symposium on Product Compliance Engineering (ISPCE), held in Dallas, TX in May 2023. It is reprinted here with the gracious permission of the IEEE. Copyright 2024, IEEE.
Electrical shock protection is one of the key elements evaluated to ensure product compliance for public safety. As studied and reported by Dalziel [1], the human body physiological effects due to electric shock are determined by how much electrical current passes through the body. Leakage current test requirements provided in UL 101 [2] evaluate the potential body current for utilization equipment and maximizes electrical shock safety. IEC 60990 [3] specifies similar requirements using the same concept but uses a different term, “touch current”. One of the major differences between UL 101 and IEC 60990 is that UL 101 defines the limit and testing procedure measuring the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) value of the leakage current; IEC 60990, on the other hand, defines the limit and testing procedure on the measured peak value of the touch current.
Feature Article
Creating an Effective and Defensible Product Recall
Recent Requirements Can Be Helpful
By Kenneth Ross
Product Recall

he recent news is replete with stories about product recalls being undertaken because of safety issues. In addition, there have been a number of recent jury verdicts based on injuries or deaths caused by a product that has been recalled, should have been recalled, or is in the process of being recalled. Needless to say, recalls can have a significant adverse effect on a manufacturer’s or product seller’s reputation, financial condition, relationship with retailers, and the ability to successfully defend a product liability case.

The law makes it easy for an injured party to claim that a recall was inadequate and that this inadequacy contributed to their injury. In addition, government entities in the U.S. and Europe are beginning to demand that companies do more things that should make their recalls more effective.

This article will discuss the law concerning recalls and recent government efforts to improve the effectiveness of such actions.

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EMC concepts explained
Difference Amplifier:
Common Mode and Differential Mode Voltages
By Bogdan Adamczyk

his column describes the operation of an ideal difference amplifier. First, the input-output relationship for the generic input voltages is derived. Subsequently, the differential mode and common mode voltages are introduced. Then, the difference amplifier driven by the common mode and differential mode input voltages is analyzed. It is shown that an ideal difference amplifier (with no resistance mismatches) eliminates the common mode portion of the input voltage and amplifies only the differential mode portion of the input voltage.

1. Difference Amplifier – Generic Input Voltages
Figure 1 shows a classical difference amplifier circuit with generic input voltages va and vb, [1].
hot topics in ESD
Challenges of CDM Modeling for High-Speed Interface Devices
By Emanuele Groppo for EOS/ESD Association, Inc.

he Charged Device Model (CDM) qualification level is essentially correlated to the peak ESD discharge current [1]. Hence, several modeling approaches have been proposed to predict CDM peak current for a given package and CDM voltage level based on lumped-element equivalent circuits [2, 3]. However, the behavior of ultra-high-speed interfaces is more complex, involving fast rise time waveforms and on-die transient phenomena that cause device failure at lower CDM levels [4]. Distributed parasitics models of both on-chip circuitry and package wiring are required to capture such phenomena properly.

State of the Art
Figure 1 shows the field-induced CDM tester schematic and the corresponding 3-capacitor circuit model described in the JEDEC standard [1]. The following capacitance contributions are considered in this model:
  • Field plate to device under test (DUT) capacitor CDUT, considering the contribution of package conductors and on-die traces.
  • Ground plane to DUT capacitor CDG, always significantly smaller than CDUT.
  • Ground plane to field plate capacitor CFG, including the chassis contribution (separated in more complex 5-capacitor models [3]).
troubleshooting EMI like a pro
Using a Near-Field Probe to Troubleshoot Transient Failures
By Dr. Min Zhang

olving EMI problems isn’t only about ensuring that a product can meet EMC regulations and standards (although it’s a significant part of the job). Another crucial reason for addressing EMI issues is to enhance product reliability, especially when a product operates in public or industrial areas where there are many different types of noise sources.

European and international immunity standards are based on typical operating environments and statistical data. Meeting these standards should be considered the minimum requirement for reliable equipment operation in the real world, given the increasing electromagnetic interference levels.

A product that incorporates EMC considerations from the beginning may not necessarily perform better, but its immunity to interference will improve its reliability in the field and make installation easier. This also leads to fewer service calls, particularly those troublesome “no fault found” cases that consume valuable time. It also reduces warranty costs and enhances customer perception, resulting in increased repeat business.

Banana Skins typographic title
Financial costs of delayed EMC compliance

A manufacturer of electrical test equipment took an order worth several million dollars for new product to be used worldwide to help service the vehicles manufactured by a major multinational. It failed to meet the EMC standards required for compliance (which had also been made a part…

Pump at ski resort causes interference

In 1996, a ski resort near Silverthorne, Colo, installed a pumping system to lift water up to a river, whose water flows into a lake at the base of the resort and is then used on the mountain for snowmaking. At that time, the pumping system consisted of a 350-hp, 480VAC, 3-phase, SCR, variable-frequency…

Electric ‘bum’ hazards

I’ve been reading up on various standards relating to test equipment safety and stumbled across BS EN 50110-1 1996 section 3.1.6 Injury (electrical) which cites “electric bum” as a potential hazard! I zoomed in and re-read it several times, it’s definitely B U M and not B U R N…

Switching of power‑factor correction capacitor interferes with contactor

A case study illustrates negative impulses of 366V followed by positive impulses of 420V at the terminals of a LV load when a power factor correction capacitor was switched on within an adjacent installation. These transients caused a contactor within a switch panel to fail to latch correctly..

Interference from insulation breakdown caused by vibration

This case study shows how high levels of vibration in a three-phase induction motor could cause insulation breakdowns causing momentary earth-faults on one phase. The resulting short voltage peaks on the mains distribution…

Switching MV power factor correction trips LV circuit breaker

This case study concerns frequent operation on a circuit breaker protecting a PVC moulding plant, causing lost production. It was found that the cause was the switching of a 120kV power factor correction capacitor in the upstream substation…

Wireless interference problems in the home

Take a look at any Sunday newspaper’s advertising section for stores that sell electronics, and it is clear that wireless devices are everywhere. Visit these stores and listen to the salespeople selling wireless local-area-networks (WLANs), cordless phones, and all else wireless to often-naïve consumers…

Interference with household appliances from living too close to a transmitter

Residents living near the ABC’s main radio transmitter at Liverpool have complained repeatedly of interference from the powerful signals it emits, amid concerns that planners have overlooked the impact of electromagnetic radiation on the area. Residents in a new housing estate at Prestons…

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